Photographer: Fernando Llano/AP. Chavez then launched a campaign to blacklist oil workers who had participated in the strike from working at PDVSA or its foreign partners in Venezuela. Maduro’s election to a second six-year term was marred by the jailing and disqualification of opposition politicians and had the lowest turnout for a presidential election in decades. Castro visits Venezuela on his 75th birthday. Claiming that Maduro was elected in a flawed election, Guaido invoked a constitutional amendment allowing the head of the legislature to lead a caretaker government until new elections can be held. A loading complex for oil tankers at Puerto Jose. Bolívar emerges as the face of Venezuelan independence, but it is short lived. Chavez’s initial success at using the oil windfall to reduce poverty made him popular throughout the developing world and a darling among left-wing celebrities, including Danny Glover, Oliver Stone and Michael Moore. The opposition won a majority of the National Assembly as recession and a collapse in the currency turned the public against Maduro. Amid rising turmoil after electoral authorities derailed a recall vote against Maduro the previous year, Maduro called for a Constituent Assembly to rewrite the constitution in a blatant effort to undermine the opposition-controlled National Assembly. History of Venezuela Timeline Timeline Description: Venezuela, situated on the northern coast of South America, supports a wide range of extreme habitats including the Andes mountain range, the Amazon Basin rainforest, the Los Llanos grassland plains, the Orinoco Delta … If Maduro manages to remain in power with the support of the military, the country will likely continue its descent into a pariah state—a tropical version of Syria under Bashar al-Assad. Paratroop Lt. Col. Hugo Chavez bursts onto the scene when he leads a failed coup against an elected government that had overseen the bloody repression of street protests against a gasoline price hike. Photographer: Juan Barreto/AFP/Getty Images. Photographer: Kimberly White/Getty Images, Venezuelans wait in line to enter a government-run grocery store. During the time he served, he presided over the "Bolivarian Revolution," a socialist revolution in Venezuela. The Chavez administration began forcing foreign oil companies to accept higher taxes and smaller, non-controlling stakes in oil projects amid what it described as an oil nationalization. Chavez ramped up social spending during the campaign, helped by billions of dollars in oil-backed loans from China, and won by a comfortable yet narrower margin than in previous elections. He was the highest-profile opposition leader to be detained, and the protests intensified with dozens killed during the first few months of the year. Chavez went on to tinker with the country’s flag several years later, adding an eighth star and replacing a subdued, almost pensive horse with a more muscular colt sprinting at full speed——this time to the left, instead of right. Sporadic power outages in the capital and other major cities were increasing just as the worst drought in 50 years was curbing output at the nation’s biggest hydroelectric dam, aggravating the crisis. Civil War. Security forces check a building after an explosion is heard. A violent standoff ensued on the Colombian border and trucks full of supplies caught fire in the melee. During a trip to the U.S., he rang the closing bell at the New York Stock Exchange, and his administration even held formal talks with the IMF until oil prices rose enough to let the government rule out the need for any financial assistance. The Battle of Vargas Swamp ends in a draw. Bolívar refused to give up but resorted to look for local guerilla leaders to aid his side. IPG: the natives and eventually most of the European colonists Long Term Causes: Mercantilism Social Hierarchy Political Instability Short Term Causes: Napoleon's Invasion of Spain End of the slave trade Haitian Revolution Cultural Nationalism: The colonists, especially the President Fidel Castro of Cuba greets Chavez in Havana. Most of the opposition joined a boycott of the vote, while government workers were coerced to turn out amid reports of fraud. Photographer: Leo Ramierz/AFP/Getty Images, Leopoldo Lopez with a National Guard escort after turning himself in on Feb. 18. People wait in line to withdraw money from an ATM in Caracas on Nov. 14, 2017. Photographer: Luis Acosta/AFP/Getty Images. Photographer: Pedro Ruiz/Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images. Photographer: Luis Robayo/AFP/Getty Images, Venezuelan migrants who crossed from Colombia walk along the Pan-American Highway in Ecuador on their way to Peru. 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