Create good names for games, profiles, brands or social networks. Older females show a similar preference, with the addition of preferring males with whom they have had long and friendly prior relationships. The spots vary in size, even on single individuals, but are commonly 20 mm (0.79 in) in diameter. Photo: Arno & Louise We’ve all heard this funny bit of trivia in zoology class, from TV shows featuring Africa’s animals, or maybe even from Batman cartoons where the Joker pokes around with his two pet hyenas, mocking superheroes every chance they get. [169], The spotted hyena has been hunted for its body parts for use in traditional medicine,[143] for amusement,[19] and for sport, though this is rare, as the species is generally not considered attractive. Jasiri: "Azaad?" Meaning of laughing hyena. [23], The first detailed first-hand descriptions of the spotted hyena by Europeans come from Willem Bosman and Peter Kolbe. Chases against both adult and young gazelles can cover distances of 5 km (3.1 mi) with speeds of 60 km/h (37 mi/h). Its head is in profile, with a possibly re-engraved muzzle. [70] The mating process is complicated, as the male's penis enters and exits the female's reproductive tract through her pseudo-penis rather than directly through the vagina, which is blocked by the false scrotum and testes. A similar tale is present among the Meru. Females provide only for their own cubs rather than assist each other, and males display no paternal care. When operating in groups, spotted hyenas are more successful in pirating dog kills, though the dog's greater tendency to assist each other puts them at an advantage against spotted hyenas, who rarely work in unison. Gilbert, W. Henry; Asfaw, Berhane (2008). It is typical for females to remain with their natal clan (although there have been rare instance of them dispersing[62]), thus large clans usually contain several matrilines, whereas males typically disperse from their natal clan at the age of 2½ years. We're doing our best to make sure our content is useful, accurate and safe.If by any chance you spot an inappropriate image within your search results please use this form to let us know, and we'll take care of it shortly. [104], A single spotted hyena can eat at least 14.5 kg of meat per meal,[105] and although they act aggressively toward each other when feeding, they compete with each other mostly through speed of eating, rather than by fighting as lions do. He adds three other animals within the category of hyenas, including an Ethiopian quadruped named "Crocotta", which was thought to be a hybrid between a hyena and a lioness. Hyena Emoji meanings and synonyms, with related words, definitions, images, and symbols. In functional terms, the spotted hyena makes the most efficient use of animal matter of all African carnivores. Before and during an assertive attack, the head is held high with the ears cocked, mouth closed, mane erect and the hindquarters high. [113] In some cases, spotted hyenas are bold enough to feed alongside lions, and may occasionally force lions off a kill. [84] The general form of a spotted hyena den is tunnel-shaped, with a spacious end chamber used for sleeping or breeding. The Egyptian Saint abba (Father) Matewos of Asfoni was associated with hyenas; one fable tells of how he rescued a cub trapped in a pit, and had his feet licked in gratitude by its mother. To Put A Smile On One’s Face. [101] There is at least one record of four hyenas killing an adult or subadult hippopotamus in Kruger National Park. [177] Sir John Barrow described how spotted hyenas in Sneeuberge were trained to hunt game, writing that they were "as faithful and diligent as any of the common domestic dogs". An image on a cave in Ariège shows an incompletely outlined and deeply engraved figure, representing a part of an elongated neck, smoothly passing into part of the animal's forelimb on the proximal side. There is a continuous distribution over large areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Botswana, Namibia and the Transvaal Lowveld areas of South Africa. Broad smile. In On the Generation of Animals, Aristotle criticised the erroneous belief that the spotted hyena is a hermaphrodite (which likely originated from the confusion caused by the masculinised genitalia of the female), though his physical descriptions are more consistent with the striped hyena. A feature of many frontier farms was the wolwehok (hyena trap), which was roughly constructed from stone or wood and baited with meat. During a hunt, spotted hyenas often run through ungulate herds in order to select an individual to attack. Explain your version of song meaning, find more of Prince Daddy & The Hyena lyrics. Explicit, negative judgments occur in the Physiologus, where the animal is depicted as a hermaphrodite and grave-robber. The tail usually hangs down when neutral, though it will change position according to the situation. Once this is accomplished, a typical mammalian mating posture is adopted. Overall, the two animals typically ignore each other when there is no food or young at stake. Bushbuck, suni and buffalo are the dominant prey items in the Aberdare Mountains, while Grant's gazelle, gerenuk, sheep, goats and cattle are likely preyed upon in northern Kenya. The latter is primarily used by low status females in order to maintain continual access to their cubs, as well as ensure that they become acquainted with their cubs before transferral to the communal den. During an attack, or when excited, the tail is carried forward on the back. [14] Unlike its brown and striped cousins, the spotted hyena is a predator, not a scavenger; this has been shown since the 1960s. Female hyenas are more flexible than males in their social bonding preferences. If you want to hold this word 'Smile' for your lovely kid, please proceed to collection and choose any of the alternative in the list given below: An erect tail does not always accompany a hostile encounter, as it has also been observed to occur when a harmless social interaction occurs. When a witch acquires a hyena mount, he rides it to distant lands in order to bewitch victims and return safely home before morning. Harvey, Martin and Mills, M. G. L. (October 2001) "Spotted Hyaena versus Brown Hyaena, Skirmishes in the Desert". Kamil Mokot hyena tattoo. [77] Giving birth is difficult for female hyenas, as the females give birth through their narrow clitoris, and spotted hyena cubs are the largest carnivoran young relative to their mothers' weight. Also, many captive individuals have not been closely examined to confirm their sexes, thus resulting in non-breeding pairs often turning out to be same-sexed individuals. Hyenas will however ignore clan boundaries in times of food shortage. [18] The species has a largely negative reputation in both Western culture and African folklore. [119], Although cheetahs and leopards preferentially prey on smaller animals than those hunted by spotted hyenas, hyenas will steal their kills when the opportunity presents itself. [69] In the final stages of pregnancy, dominant females provide their developing offspring with higher androgen levels than lower-ranking mothers do. [167] Hyenas habituated to scavenging on human corpses may develop bold behaviours towards living people; hyena attacks on people in southern Sudan increased during the Second Sudanese Civil War, when human corpses were readily available to them. [35], The spotted hyena has a strong and well developed neck and forequarters, but relatively underdeveloped hindquarters. An image in the Le Gabillou Cave in Dordogne shows a deeply engraved zoomorphic figure with a head in frontal view and an elongated neck with part of the forelimb in profile. [122] There is also a case of two spotted hyenas killing and eating a young leopard in Timbavati Game Reserve, apparently in revenge after a young hyena was killed by the leopard. [46] One individual in a study was found to exert a bite force of 4,500 newtons on the measuring instruments. An intruder can be accepted into another clan after a long period of time if it persists in wandering into the clan's territory, dens or kills. [37] Exceptionally large weights of 81.7 kg (180 lb)[9] and 90 kg (198 lb)[27] are known. Hyenas do not take to eating wolf flesh readily; four hyenas were reported to take half an hour in eating a golden wolf. In Kenya's Masai Mara, 80% of the spotted hyena's prey consists of topi and Thomson's gazelle, save for during the four-month period when zebra and wildebeest herds migrate to the area. In Mozambique, traditional healers use various spotted hyena body parts, particularly the paws. [160] Although spotted hyenas do prey on humans in modern times, such incidents are rare. Thanks for your vote! In the Namib Desert, it occurs in riverine growth along seasonal rivers, the sub-desertic pro-Namib and the adjoining inland plateau. Such large carcasses were an optimal food resource for hyenas, especially at the end of winter, when food was scarce. In Uganda, it is thought that the species primarily preys on birds and reptiles, while in Zambia it is considered a scavenger. The higher androgen levels – the result of high concentrations of ovarian androstenedione – are thought to be responsible for the extreme masculinization of female behavior and morphology. [137] Spotted hyenas may act as hosts in the life-cycles of various parasites which start life in herbivores; Taenia hyaenae and T. olnogojinae occur in hyenas in their adult phase. Hiob Ludolf, in his Historia aethiopica, was the first to clearly distinguish the Crocuta from Hyaena on account of physical, as well as geographical grounds, though he never had any first hand experience of the species, having gotten his accounts from an Ethiopian intermediary. When afraid, the ears are folded flat, and are often combined with baring of the teeth and a flattening of the mane. [9] Combined with large jaw muscles and a special vaulting to protect the skull against large forces, these characteristics give the spotted hyena a powerful bite which can exert a pressure of 80 kgf/cm2 (1140 lbf/in²),[42] which is 40% more force than a leopard can generate. Get instant definitions for any word that hits you anywhere on the web! They will typically inspect areas where wild dogs have rested and eat any food remains they find. [1] The species is, however, experiencing declines outside of protected areas due to habitat loss and poaching. The phrase, “Don’t wake a sleeping tiger,” sums up the darker side of this creature. In Malawi and Tanzania, the genitalia, nose tips and tails are used for traditional medicine. They also view spotted hyena faeces as contaminating, and will evacuate a village if a hyena relieves itself within village boundaries. [66][67], Territory size is highly variable, ranging from less than 40 km2 in the Ngorongoro Crater to over 1,000 km2 in the Kalahari. [63] During these greeting ceremonies, the penis or pseudo-penis often becomes erect, in both males and females. Alfred Brehm wrote that the spotted hyena is harder to tame than the striped hyena, and that performing specimens in circuses were not up to standard. Also, it was not a serious rival like the cave lion or cave bear, and it lacked the impressiveness of the mammoth or woolly rhino. In this smile the upper and lower teeth are made visible. As a result, many captive hyena populations are facing extinction. In the former, the species is mostly regarded as ugly and cowardly, while in the latter, it is viewed as greedy, gluttonous, stupid, and foolish, yet powerful and potentially dangerous. [21], From Classical antiquity until the Renaissance, the spotted and striped hyena were either assumed to be the same species, or distinguished purely on geographical, rather than physical grounds. [158], When targeting livestock, the spotted hyena primarily preys upon cattle, sheep and goats,[12] though hyenas in the southern parts of Ethiopia's Tigray region preferentially target donkeys. [14] Another theory is that it is an adaptation to the length of time it takes for cubs to develop their massive skulls and jaws, thus necessitating greater attention and dominating behaviours from females. [136], The spotted hyena's distribution once ranged in Europe from the Iberian Peninsula to the Urals, where it remained for at least one million years. [160], Several authors during the Scramble for Africa attested that, despite its physical strength, the spotted hyena poses no danger to hunters when captured or cornered. ‘They also endured first-hand experiences with green mamba snakes, grunting warthogs, laughing hyenas, and black centipedes which would fall dramatically into the bath.’ More example sentences ‘Lawyers have referred to black male defendants as ‘laughing hyenas out to kill someone,’ ‘vultures,’ ‘tigers,’ ‘mad dogs,’ and ‘animals in the jungle.’’ Its range once encompassed almost all of Africa and Eurasia, and displayed a large degree of morphological geographic variation, which led to an equally extensive set of specific and subspecific epithets. They are occasionally killed in communal and commercial farming areas. [39] The now extinct Eurasian populations were distinguished from the modern African populations by their shorter distal extremities and longer humerus and femur. [69] Like many feliform species, the spotted hyena is promiscuous, and no enduring pair bonds are formed. [85] Females generally give birth at the communal den or a private birth den. Wildebeest will sometimes attempt to escape hyenas by taking to water although, in such cases, the hyenas almost invariably catch them. [86] The intelligence of the spotted hyena was attested to by Dutch colonists in 19th-century South Africa, who noted that hyenas were exceedingly cunning and suspicious, particularly after successfully escaping from traps. Faint smile definition: A faint sound, colour, mark, feeling , or quality has very little strength or intensity .... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples They are thought to be declining due to persecution through poisoning, shooting, snaring and trapping. [114] Lions may charge at hyenas and maul them for no apparent reason; one male lion was filmed killing two hyenas on separate occasions without eating them,[117] and lion predation can account for up to 71% of hyena deaths in Etosha. A soft, very low pitched growling sound which lasts several seconds. It has large round eyes and short, rounded ears which are set far from each other. However, they continued to focus on the species' scavenging habits, their potential to rob graves and their perceived cowardice. [40], The skull of the spotted hyena differs from that of the striped hyena by its much greater size and narrower sagittal crest. Chases are usually initiated by one hyena and, with the exception of cows with calves, there is little active defence from the wildebeest herd. This is a true smile and not one that is easily faked. Although present in Rwanda, it is unlikely that many individuals have survived the destruction of conservation areas during the. The gaze is relaxed and the smile is intended to convey joy and pleasure. [64] Spotted hyena milk has the highest protein and fat content of any terrestrial carnivore. [182], As several distinguished authors of the present age have undertaken to reconcile the world to the Great Man-Killer of Modern times; as. Within ten days of birth, they are able to move at considerable speed. Spotted hyena society is matriarchal; females are larger than males, and dominate them. Although considered useful scavengers and are afforded legal protection in national parks, spotted hyenas are not tolerated elsewhere. The trap featured a trap-door, which was designed to shut once the bait was disturbed. He’s swift and wild, assuring that anyone he picks to pick up for the night is gonna be one lucky fellow. [63] Clans mark their territories by either pasting or pawing in special latrines located on clan range boundaries. Spotted hyenas are thought to be responsible for the dis-articulation and destruction of some cave bear skeletons. [78] During parturition, the clitoris ruptures in order to facilitate the passage of the young, and may take weeks to heal. He’s not just in it for giggles, because he knows how to treat anyone he might happen to come across. In ideal habitats, the spotted hyena outnumbers other large carnivores, including other hyena species. Although they do not wag their tails, spotted hyenas will flick their tails when approaching dominant animals or when there is a slight tendency to flee. However, rank reversals and overthrows in spotted hyena clans are very rare. [5] The spotted hyena is the largest known member of the Hyaenidae, and is further physically distinguished from other species by its vaguely bear-like build,[6] its rounded ears,[7] its less prominent mane, its spotted pelt,[8] its more dual purposed dentition,[9] its fewer nipples[10] and the presence of a pseudo-penis in the female. [95] Kruuk found Solomon's company so congenial, he would have kept him, but Solomon had an insatiable taste for "cheese in the bar of the tourist lounge and bacon off the Chief Park Warden's breakfast table", and no door could hold him back, so Solomon was obliged to live out his days in the Edinburgh Zoo. They begin to exhibit hunting behaviours at the age of eight months, and will begin fully participating in group hunts after their first year. They react to alighting vultures more readily than other African carnivores, and are more likely to stay in the vicinity of lion kills or human settlements.[97]. This was proven to be incorrect, as the correct spelling of the loanword would have been Crocāta, and the word was never used in that sense by Graeco-Roman sources. Nigerian spotted hyenas are on the verge of extinction, due to lack of legal protection outside of national parks and reserves, declines in prey populations and persecution in retaliation to livestock predation. Although individual spotted hyenas only care for their own young, and males take no part in raising their young, cubs are able to identify relatives as distantly related as great-aunts. It further embodies physical power, excessivity, ugliness, stupidity, as well as sacredness. In Cameroon, it is common for spotted hyenas to feed on small antelopes like kob, but may also scavenge on reedbuck, kongoni, buffalo, giraffe, African elephant, topi and roan antelope carcasses. Its success is due in part to its adaptability and opportunism; it is primarily a hunter but may also scavenge, with the capacity to eat and digest skin, bone and other animal waste. Five deaths were recorded in 1956, five in 1957 and six in 1958. The ontogeny of the urogenital system of the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta Erxleben). Chases are usually relatively slow, with an average speed of 15–30 km/h. It also carries protozoan parasites of the genus Hepatozoon in the Serengeti, Kenya and South Africa. There are 271 laugh hyena-related words in total, with the top 5 most semantically related being titter, giggle, chuckle, guffaw and yuk.You can get the definition(s) of a word in the list below by tapping the question-mark icon next to it. [136] It is known that adult spotted hyenas in the Serengeti have antibodies against rabies, canine herpes, canine brucellosis, canine parvovirus, feline calicivirus, leptospirosis, bovine brucellosis, rinderpest and anaplasmosis. [175] Nevertheless, the spotted hyena was historically scantily represented in zoos, and was typically obtained in order to fill empty cages until a more prestigious species could be obtained. [90] The spotted hyena tracks live prey by sight, hearing and smell. Some 40 of the animals were reportedly seen alongside a fence bordering the British Embassy compound. [114] Spotted hyenas usually prevail against groups of lionesses unaccompanied by males if they outnumber them 4:1. [79], Although easily tamed, spotted hyenas are exceedingly difficult to house train,[180] and can be very destructive; a captive, otherwise perfectly tame, specimen in the Tower of London managed to tear an 8-foot (2.4 m) long plank nailed to its recently repaired enclosure floor with no apparent effort. [43] The jaws of the spotted hyena outmatch those of the brown bear in bonecrushing ability,[44] and free ranging hyenas have been observed to crack open the long bones of giraffes measuring 7 cm in diameter. Analyses of several hyena saliva samples showed that the species is unlikely to be a rabies vector, thus indicating that the species catches the disease from other animals rather than from intraspecifics. [151] In Khoikhoi mythology, the spotted hyena is often the butt of the jackal's tricks. Faeces are usually deposited 20 metres (66 feet) away from the den, though they urinate wherever they happen to be. When fossils are taken into consideration, the species displayed even greater variation than it does in modern times, and a number of these named fossil species have since been classed as synonymous with Crocuta crocuta, with firm evidence of there being more than one species within the genus Crocuta still lacking. [96] However spotted hyenas remain being mislabeled as scavengers, often even by ecologists and wildlife documentary channels. [149], During the early years of Dutch colonisation in southern Africa, hyenas (referred to as "wolves" by the colonists) were especially susceptible to trapping, as their predilection for eating carrion, and lack of caution about enclosed spaces, worked against them. Androgens and masculinization of genitalia in the spotted hyaena. "Age Estimation and Dispersal in the Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta)", "Topological effects of network structure on long-term social network dynamics in a wild mammal", "Socioecological variables predict telomere length in wild spotted hyenas", "Socioecological predictors of immune defenses in a wild spotted hyenas", "It’s a dog’s life – aggressive male hyenas fail to impress the girls", "Sexual conflicts in spotted hyenas: male and female mating tactics and their reproductive outcome with respect to age, social status and tenure", "Hyenas Surprisingly Good at Cooperative Tasks", "Prey preferences of the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)", Tyrants of the Cenozoic: Evolution of Bone-Crushing Hyenas and Dogs – YouTube, "Prey deposits and den sites of the Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823)in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst", Behind the snarl lies a cagey opportunist, proficient hunter, and dutiful parent, Hyena: Scavenger or Predator? [63] Spotted hyena dens can have more than a dozen entrances, and are mostly located on flat ground. [63], Cubs are born with soft, brownish black hair, and weigh 1.5 kg on average. to smile in a way that expresses satisfaction or pleasure about having done something, or knowing something that is not known by someone else: I don't like the way he winks and smirks at me … [161], Although attacks against living humans are rare, the spotted hyena readily feeds on human corpses. In the same area, hyena faeces are believed to enable a child to walk at an early age, thus it is not uncommon in that area to see children with hyena dung wrapped in their clothes. [154], Spotted hyenas feature prominently in the rituals of certain African cultures. [5] Remains have also been found in the Russian Far East, and it has been theorised that the presence of hyenas there may have delayed the colonisation of North America. The body and the long neck have spots, including the flanks. 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