F. J. J. Nevertheless, live nymphs were not recovered on mice after fipronil treatment, whereas nymphs were present on mice in the untreated control areas through August 1999 (Fig. W. A total of 6,025 ticks was collected from these mice. B. G. Telford This is most likely a direct result of the problems experienced with the bait box prototype that was used on the island from May through the end of July. Epub 2019 Dec 18. Characteristic morulae may be present in granulocytes. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com, Discovery and Surveillance of Tick-Borne Pathogens, Evaluation of Larval Therapy Compared to Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Skin Wounds in Rabbits, Efficient Monitoring of Adult and Immature Mosquitoes Through Metabarcoding of Bulk Samples: A Case Study for Non-Model Culicids With Unique Ecologies, ‘Burning Violin’: The Medically Important Spider Genus, About the Entomological Society of America, https://doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-41.6.1043, VECTOR CONTROL, PEST Management, Resistance, Repellents, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Entomological Society of America. It was difficult for mice to enter the bait-containing chamber due to the rigid wick design. Tick infestations on Nauyaug Pt. Ear-biopsy culture results performed on P. leucopus demonstrated that the transmission cycle of Lyme disease on Mason’s Island is very intense. Montenieri 1991, Stafford and Magnarelli 1993). Ginsberg These observations underscore the need for an acaricide with considerable residual activity and adequate potency to protect mice from tick infestation. In 2000, initial treatment with fipronil began on 19 May (245 boxes on 34 properties) and at 2-wk intervals, each box was checked to add bait and fipronil as necessary. Integrated control of juvenile Ixodes scapularis parasitizing Peromyscus leucopus in residential settings in Connecticut, United States. Likewise, areawide applications tend to be seasonal and short term, and are often criticized for their impact on the environment. R. D. However, some studies using this methodology failed to reduce the number of host-seeking nymphs (Daniels et al. D. W. 2001), and are formulated with a synergist such as piperonyl butoxide, for areawide treatments (Panella et al. Wilson 2B) was used from 15 May to 25 July 2001. Initiation of treatment early in the spring killed many spirochete-infected nymphs before transmission usually occurs. 2015). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of areawide applications of acaricides for controlling host-seeking I. scapularis nymphs (Schulze et al. . T. N. Ixodes scapularis is also known to be a vector of human babesiosis, Babesia microti, and human granulolytic erlichosis. . Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. M. S. 2019 Mar 7;13(3):e0007210. Piesman 1974, Gage et al. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Panella Beard . resulted in a 25 (Fig. D. E. Pretreatment trapping conducted during April and May 1999 and May only of the following years. 1982), occurs by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with direct sequencing methods were used to characterize the potential … Burkot Jordan The number of questing adults flagged on Nauyaug Pt. Five sites located in the undeveloped natural area near the center of the island were used as untreated controls during all 3 yr (Fig. D. E. Typically Babesia microti is transmitted by the nymphal stage of Ixodes scapularis ticks (about the size of a poppy seed). . Ostfeld RS, Brunner JL. Mount 84 days (week 12) after treatment. J.M.C. . The mean number of ticks per mouse declined steadily from 2.1 in June to 0.9 in September (Fig. Deblinger Relative use of bait boxes was determined as in the previous 2 yr, by recording use data on a total of 200 boxes located on 35 properties. . Barnard 1997; Lane et al. During year 3 of the study, a bait box produced by Bayer Environmental Science (Prototype 2; Fig. Telford Stevenson As a result, larval ticks that successfully feed on these uninfected mice will not be infected with Borrelia once they molt to nymphs. K. L. Likewise, the abundance of host-seeking nymphs was significantly reduced on treated properties by >50%. and the New Areas, respectively. A. Piesman The location of the wick in relation to the bait chamber and the narrowed access run between the wick and bait (arrows) adversely affected acceptance and use by targeted rodents, resulting in sublevel treatment of animals. 2018 Jan;18(1):55-64. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2017.2146. A total of 6,248 trap nights resulted in the capture of 1,821 P. leucopus (29.2% trap success rate), the principal reservoir for B. burgdorferi in the northeastern United States. A monthly record of relative use by white-footed mice was kept for 200 boxes in total on 35 properties, June through September. Hung A representative sample (≥50) of nymphs and adults was tested for infection with B. burgdorferi by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as described previously by Zeidner et al. A cotton yarn wick was stapled to the underside of the lid so that when the lid was closed and locked, the wick was suspended just above the floor and immediately inside the entry to the feeding chamber. 1986) before cultures were deemed negative. Zeidner Figure 1 shows the locations of fipronil-treated properties and untreated control areas, and Table 2 describes the bait box design, fipronil formulation, and number of treated properties evaluated from 1999 to 2001 on Mason’s Island., Mystic, CT. Williams SC, Little EAH, Stafford KC 3rd, Molaei G, Linske MA. In 2001, initial treatment with the Aventis Prototype 2 (Fig. Mather A licensing agreement has been signed between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Bayer Environmental Science. 1. Mason’s Island is a coastal island in southeastern Connecticut ≈4.5 by 3.4 km and predominated by oak hardwoods. R. C. Epub 2018 Apr 16. Rimmer Results from this 3-yr trial indicate that the use of fipronil passively applied to reservoir animals by bait boxes is an environmentally acceptable means to control ticks, interrupt the natural disease transmission cycle, and reduce the risk of Lyme disease for residents of treated properties. Remove the tick(s) manually being careful to remove the mouthparts by grasping the tick very close to, or preferably by, th… 1991, Goodman et al. Ogden NH, Bigras-Poulin M, O’Callaghan CJ, et al. A total of 11 host-seeking nymphs (four nymphs in 2000 and seven in 2001) were collected on the 13 properties on Nauyaug Pt. No.09/595,034, 2) Control of Arthropods on Rodents U.S. Patent Ser. A record of relative use by white-footed mice was kept for each box during the trial. During these studies, one individual pest management professional (SavaTree) successfully deployed a total of 1,700 bait boxes on 154 properties in 5 d on Mason’s Island in 2001. M. L. The only increase occurred during the larval peak in August (1.8 ticks per mouse) (Fig. 2007;134(pt 2):209-227. Comparison of adult I. scapularis populations after fipronil treatment in 1999 and 2000, Mason's Island Mystic, CT, Comparison of nymphal I. scapularis populations after fipronil treatment in 1999 and 2000, Mason's Island Mystic, CT. (1997) developed a rodent-targeted bait tube approach for controlling ectoparasitic disease vectors by passive application of liquid permethrin. Rimmer These bait boxes were replaced with a modified Protecta Jr. bait box by 30 July. This prototype exhibited severe overall limitations and we were unable to determine the effectiveness of boxes containing a scented versus a food bait and the prototype 2 boxes were replaced by 30 July 2001 with the modified Protecta Jr. mouse bait box used in 1999 and 2000 (Table 2). Finally, we thank James P. Kiely, SavaTree, for expert technical assistance and maintenance of bait boxes, and Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ, for the contribution of fipronil and bait boxes. In this study, we further investigated the potential presence of filarial nematodes in the Ixodes scapularis (deer tick) collected from Southern Connecticut. C. Cultures were read by dark-field microscopy every 7 d for 4 wk (Piesman et al. 1998). ; only 10.3% became infected during the treatment period compared with 42.9% during the pretreatment period (P = 0.0187). This undeveloped area on the center of the island contained four-fifths untreated areas and allowed us to further evaluate bait box efficacy. J. K. These concentrations are 4,000–6,000-fold higher than the LD50 required to kill nymphal ticks and ≈40,000 fold the amount required to effectively control larvae (Barnard et al. However, many environmental factors, including, temperature and precipitation, can affect the onset and duration of questing nymphal tick periods making a single well-timed application difficult. Using the modified Abbott’s formula monthly percent reductions of ticks on mice in this new area during year 2 were calculated as follows: June, 86%; July, 45%; August, 87%; and September, 96% reduction. A. Shaw The organism can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Treatment was terminated the final week of September for each year. Falco Postal compared with the untreated control areas (Fig. . Bosler J. S. 3. . R. F. J. K. Tick densities and spirochete infection rates were essentially identical in untreated areas (189 nymphs, 1.03 nymphs per minute and 26% infected) and the New Areas (141 nymphs, 0.94 nymphs per minute and 24% infected) during 2000. Although areawide acaricides and vegetation management can be effective in reducing tick populations, it is highly desirable to provide the public with additional options for controlling medically important arthropods. Figures 3A and 4A show that a total of two pretreatment collections made in April and May 1999 resulted in 16.3 and 29.3% of mice infested with ticks (Fig. H. J. Lane Little EAH, Williams SC, Stafford KC 3rd, Linske MA, Molaei G. Exp Appl Acarol. Ear biopsies were taken, surface sterilized, and cultured in BSK-H media for isolation of B. burgdorferi (Sinsky and Piesman 1989). 1997). Madigan Impact of abiotic factors, habitat type and urban wildlife on the ecology of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in urban and peri-urban habitats. In 2000, 44 properties in total were treated with 315 fipronil-treated bait boxes. However, posttreatment results reflected a significant reduction of ticks on mice throughout the treatment period. Kurtii Moreover, using these devices in combination as part of an integrated pest management approach would facilitate the targeting of all three stages of deer ticks for complete control during a single season and warrants further investigation. The goal was to visualize filarial nematode infections in Ixodes scapularis using filarial nematode DNA specific in situ hybridization techniques. Control of immature questing ticks on Nauyaug Pt. Medevitt are coinventors on three patents pending: 1) Control of Arthropod Vectors of Parasitic Diseases U.S. Patent Ser. C. C. Alternative methods to control Lyme disease vector ticks include vegetation management and landscape modifications, reduction of host species populations, and biological control (Wilson et al. R. D. Piesman Miller Ixodes scapularis (black-legged tick), Ixodes pacificus (Western black-legged tick) in California, Ixodes ricinus in Europe, and probably Ixodes persulcatus in parts of Asia. . 2000). were infested at rates of 54, 77, and 38%, respectively. Ewing These ticks prefer a high- moisture environment such as leaf litter, preferably under hardwood forest canopy. Babesiosis is a vector-borne illness usually transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. T. M. 4C) (P < 0.001). Hyde This research was made possible through a competitive Emerging Infectious Disease Initiative, Emerging Infectious Disease Discretionary Fund, through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Bacterial Zoonoses Branch, Lyme Disease Vector Section, Fort Collins, CO. G.O.M. B. J. The impact of treatment on host-seeking populations of nymphal and adult I. scapularis was evaluated. and the New Areas were 73.7- and 3.3-fold less abundant, and the number of nymphs per minute in the New Areas was reduced by 68% compared with untreated areas. J. M. Upon replacement of these boxes (30 July 2001) with the original prototype, a modified Protecta Jr. bait box, no ticks were collected from 54 P. leucopus trapped during August and September 2001 (Figs. Jacobs Results of this trial were the basis for using 0.75% fipronil during bait box efficacy trials from July 1999 to September 2001. 1991, 1994; Stafford et al. Table 4 shows densities of host-seeking nymphs in June 2000 and 2001. 1997). C. J. J. (B) Prototype 2 bait box used from May through July 2001. 1991, Stafford et al. 2B) fipronil-treated bait box began on 15 May, and boxes were left in place until they were replaced with the modified Protecta Jr. mouse bait box (Fig. This was replaced by a 0.75% (proprietary issue) (AI) formulation of fipronil in July 1999 and used through September 2001 (Table 2). In an animal model of another tick-borne disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, antibiotic prophylaxis appeared to delay but not prevent infection.4 Antimicrobial therapy for the prevention of Lyme disease after I. sca… The principal goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that passively applied fipronil in a rodent bait box effectively reduced the number of host-seeking I. scapularis. and M.C.D. G. C. of treated properties evaluated from 1999 to 2001 on Mason's Is., Mystic, CT. Map of Mason's Island showing individual land plots and properties receiving fipronil-treated bait boxes, 1999–2001. C. A. S. R. At 42 d after treatment, only 6% of nymphal ticks fed to repletion in the group treated with 0.75% fipronil compared with 74% on untreated animals (Table 1). W.E. Applications of insecticides and acaricides are frequently proposed as the primary means of reducing exposure to tick-borne diseases. 1998, Schulze et al. Johnson Fipronil is highly regarded for its effective and safe control of fleas and ticks and is widely used as a spot-on treatment for companion animals (Hutchison et al. The fact that commercial pesticides preparations delivered at these concentrations are highly effective is not surprising. K. Burgdorfer Fish Lyme disease can be debilitating to humans by causing fatigue and ultimately problems with the central nervous system. Transmission of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (Burgdorfer et al. C. P. Questing larvae were not quantified nor tested for infection with tick-borne pathogens as with nymphs and adults. In addition, fipronil has the characteristic of displacing mechanically to areas of the skin far from the site of treatment along with low percutaneous passage (Cochet et al. N. S. Schulze J. J. A. J. In 1999, 13 contiguous properties at the southern tip of the island (Nauyaug Point, ≈ 9.9 ha) received fipronil-treated bait boxes. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the lowest concentration of 20 μl of fipronil formulation required to kill ≥90% of I. scapularis nymphs on treated outbred mice through 42 d posttreatment. 1987, Deblinger and Rimmer 1991) and woodrats to treat these rodents with permethrin-treated cotton nest material. In 2000, 31 additional properties (orange dots) received Protecta Jr. fipronil-treated bait boxes (new areas, 44 total treated properties). R. A. 2020 Jul 31;13(1):391. doi: 10.1186/s13071-020-04258-0. Vitale Goodman 1993), although these efforts were seasonal and short term. G. O. In both the treated and untreated areas during 1999 and 2000, >70% of the mice were captured only once, and the proportion of individual captures in the treated and untreated areas during 2001 were 67 and 65%, respectively, indicating constant migration in and out of the study area (data not shown). Spirochete-infected P. leucopus (67.9% of 666 mice) were present at all five untreated collection sites. 3B) and 10% (Fig. Five sites located in the undeveloped center of the island served as untreated controls during all 3 yr (blue dots). (2000), during 2000 and 2001. Modified Protecta Jr. (Bell Laboratories, Madison, WI) mouse bait boxes (fipronil-treated bait boxes) were used in this study (Fig. We thank Rufus Allyn, Mason’s Island Company, and the entire Mason’s Island community for help and participation. Humane Use of Cardiac Puncture for Non-Terminal Phlebotomy of Wild-Caught and Released. J. D. Daniels 4). J. F. Deblinger We also thank Lesley Cummin, Mason’s Island Fire District Tick Control Committee, for splendid efforts on promoting this project. Dumler Gage et al. The number of boxes per property ranged from 5 to 20 (average of 10 boxes per property), depending on property size and presence of suitable mouse habitat. It is especially important that such checks be performed on children. R. C. Weil Antimicrobial prophylaxis for persons with I. scapularis tick bites may be a way to prevent Lyme disease. 15 May–July, properties received Prototype 2 bait boxes; modified Protecta Jr. boxes were used August and September. D. H. W. E. Piesman . 240–280, Ecolological dynamics of tick-borne zoonoses, Longevity and survival in a population of white-footed mice (, Effectiveness of two insecticides in controlling, Vector tick populations and Lyme disease: a summary of control strategies, Effectiveness of selected granular acaricide formulations in suppressing populations of, Effects of an application of granular carbaryl on nontarget forest floor arthropods, Ear punch biopsy method for detection and isolation of, Field evaluation of two formulations of cyfluthrin for control of. Lastavica Stafford (A) Picture of the modified Protecta Jr. bait box used during 1999, 2000, and August and September 2001. 1991). Piesman Zultkowsky Fish Ixodes scapularis is mainly found in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, and north central United States while Ixodes pacificus is found on the Pacific coast of the US (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2013). Bosler To date, single, well-timed areawide applications of acaricides provide the most effective reduction of ticks (Stafford 1991a, b; Schulze et al. 2A). Dolan Figures 3B and 4B show that in May, tick infestation rates on mice in these New Areas were similar to those in untreated controls. J. 1998). Passive application of fipronil significantly reduced the infection rate of Borrelia burgdorferi among white-footed mice by 53%. D. 1997). Moreover, the discovery that I. scapularis transmits several diseases to humans in addition to Lyme disease, including babesiosis, and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (Lane et al. These ticks were not used when determining infestation rates or ticks per mouse. Chomsky Dammin W.M. Dolan 1977) and is currently the most frequently reported vector-borne disease in the United States (CDC 1995). R. The wick consisted of a fipronil-treated cotton string attached to the lid of the box. During June 2000, infection rates in questing nymphs from the untreated areas and new areas was 13 and 11% for Ap, respectively. To determine the specific activity of laboratory bioassays to control application in a field setting, the modified Abbott’s formula (Mount 1981) was used for primary comparisons between least (active ingredient) of fipronil in laboratory bioassays, percentage of reductions of ticks on mice in treated areas compared with untreated areas, as well as monthly percentage of reductions of ticks on mice and number of nymphs flagged per minute in the new areas. Upon capture, individual mice were anesthetized with methoxyflurane and ectoparasites removed with fine forceps and placed in 70% ethanol for species identification. Climate change and Ixodes tick-borne diseases of humans. A second method developed by Gage et al. Applications of these devices not only dramatically reduce the total number of I. scapularis ticks but also, as we have demonstrated here, decrease the abundance of ticks infected with Bb and Ap in these endemic areas. Were larval and nymphal I. scapularis at 14, 28, and 38 %, respectively ( Fig scapularis Schulze! Mice indicate a high level of host-targeted control Piesman et al of insecticides and acaricides are frequently as. Taylor G. C. Jordan R. A. Bosler E. M. Shisler J. K. properties... Evaluation of a poppy seed ) 2018 Jul ; 9 ( 5 ):826.:!, Tallahassee, FL ) ) was evaluated were used August and,. Woodpiles and outbuildings ; 13 ( 3 ): e0007210 of juvenile Ixodes scapularis (:! Molt to nymphs very intense to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription fipronil-treated bait boxes contained wick. 2001 ( 0.0345 nymphs per minute, 2-yr Average ) Johnson R. C. J.... J. Jr. Schulze J. J. Munderloh U. G. chamber due to the small sample size Karakashian S. J. Spielman.. 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